Jessica Smith's Publications

Clapp, C. E., Smith, J. B., Bedka, K. M. & Anderson, J. G. (in press). Identifying Source Regions of Warm Season North American Cross-tropopause Convection and of the Distribution of Convective Outflow. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres.

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Anderson, J. G., D. K. Weisenstein, K. P. Bowman, C. R. Homeyer, J. B. Smith, D. M. Wilmouth, D. S. Sayres, J. E. Klobas, S. S. Leroy, J. A. Dykema, and S. C. Wofsy (2017), Stratospheric ozone over the United States in summer linked to observations of convection and temperature via chlorine and bromine catalysis, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 114: E4905-E4913; doi: 10.1073/pnas.1619318114.

We present observations defining (i) the frequency and depth of convective penetration of water into the stratosphere over the United States in summer using the Next-Generation Radar system; (ii) the altitude-dependent distribution of inorganic chlorine established in the same coordinate system as the radar observations; (iii) the high resolution temperature structure in the stratosphere over the...

Smith, J. B., D. M. Wilmouth, K. M. Bedka, K. P. Bowman, C. R. Homeyer, J. A. Dykema, M. R. Sargent, C. Clapp, S. S. Leroy, D. S. Sayres, J. M. Dean-Day, T. P. Bui, and J. G. Anderson (2017), A case-study of convectively sourced water vapor observed in the overworld stratosphere over the United States, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 122, doi:10.1002/2017JD026831.

On 27 August 2013, during the Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys field mission, NASA's ER‐2 research aircraft encountered a region of enhanced water vapor, extending over a depth of approximately 2 km and a minimum areal extent of 20,000 km2 in the stratosphere (375 K to 415 K potential temperature), south of...

Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres, UV Dosage Levels in Summer: Increased Risk of Ozone Loss from Convectively Injected Water Vapor, Science 337, 835 (2012).

The observed presence of water vapor convectively injected deep into the stratosphere over
the United States can fundamentally change the catalytic chlorine/bromine free-radical chemistry of the lower stratosphere by shifting total available inorganic chlorine into the catalytically active free-radical form, ClO. This chemical shift markedly affects total ozone loss rates and makes
the catalytic...

Sayres, D.S., L. Pfister, T.F. Hanisco, E.J. Moyer, J.B. Smith, J.M. St. Clair, A.S. OBrien, M.F. Witinski, M. Legg, J. G. Anderson, Influence of Convection on the Water Isotopic Composition of the Tropical Tropopause Layer and Tropical Stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 115, D00J20, doi:10.1029/2009JD013100, 2010. 

We present the first in situ measurements of HDO across the tropical tropopause, obtained by the integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) and Hoxotope water isotope instruments during the Costa Rica Aura Validation Experiment (CR-AVE) and Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) aircraft campaigns out of Costa Rica in winter and summer, respectively. We use these data to explore...

Weinstock, E. M., et al. (2009), Validation of the Harvard Lyman-α in situ water vapor instrument: Implications for the mechanisms that control stratospheric water vaporJ. Geophys. Res.114, D23301, doi:10.1029/2009JD012427.

Building on previously published details of the laboratory calibrations of the Harvard Lyman-α photofragment fluorescence hygrometer (HWV) on the NASA ER-2 and WB-57 aircraft, we describe here the validation process for HWV, which includes laboratory calibrations and intercomparisons with other Harvard water vapor instruments at water vapor mixing ratios from 0 to 10 ppmv, followed by in-...

J.M. St. Clair, T.F. Hanisco, E.M. Weinstock, E.J. Moyer,D.S. Sayres, F.N. Keutsch, J.H. Kroll, J.N. Demusz,N.T. Allen, J.B. Smith, J.R. Spackman, J.G. Anderson, A new photolysis laser-induced fluorescence instrument for the detection of H2O and HDO in the lower stratosphere. Sci. Instrum. 79, 064101 (2008). doi:10.1063/1.2940221.

We present a new instrument, Hoxotope, for the in situ measurement of H2O and its heavy deuterium isotopologue (HDO) in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere aboard the NASA WB-57. Sensitive measurements of δD are accomplished through the vacuum UV photolysis of water followed by laser-induced fluorescence detection of the resultant OH and OD photofragments....

Sayres, D. S., J. B. Smith, J. V. Pittman, E. M. Weinstock, J. G. Anderson, G. Heymsfield, L. Li, A. M. Fridlind, and A. S. Ackerman(2008), Validation and determination of ice water content-radar reflectivity relationships during CRYSTAL-FACE: Flight requirements for future comparisonsJ. Geophys. Res.113, D05208, doi:10.1029/2007JD008847.

In situ measurements of cirrus ice water content (IWC) by the Harvard water vapor and total water instruments during Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers-Florida Area Cirrus Experiment are compared with remote sensing data made by the Cloud Radar System instrument in order to derive and validate an empirical IWC-radar relflectivity Z e relationship. The...

Weinstock, E. M., et al. (2007), Quantifying the impact of the North American monsoon and deep midlatitude convection on the subtropical lowermost stratosphere using in situ measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D18310, doi:10.1029/2007JD008554.

The chemical composition of the lowermost stratosphere exhibits both spatial and temporal variability depending upon the relative strength of (1) isentropic transport from the tropical tropopause layer (TTL), (2) diabatic descent from the midlatitude and northern midlatitude stratosphere followed by equatorward isentropic transport, and (3) diabatic ascent from the troposphere through convection...

Pittman, J. V., et al. (2007), Transport in the subtropical lowermost stratosphere during the Cirrus Regional Study ofTropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers – Florida Area Cirrus Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D08304, doi:10.1029/2006JD007851.

We use in situ measurements of water vapor (H2O), ozone (O3), carbon dioxide(CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and total reactive nitrogen (NOy)obtained during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign in July 2002 to study summertimetransport in the subtropical lowermost stratosphere. We use an objective methodology todistinguish the latitudinal origin of the sampled air masses despite the...

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